By Lanning B. Kline, MD
A patient-centered method of the prognosis and remedy of significant neuro-ophthalmic stipulations. concentrating on very important proposing symptoms, this ebook leads the reader throughout the occasionally sophisticated manifestations of neuro-ophthalmic affliction to anatomic localization of lesions and definitive analysis. additionally contains an summary of the anatomy of the visible pathway, guidance for carrying out the neuro-ophthalmic exam and applicable use of diagnostic imaging stories.
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Extra info for 2008-2009 Basic and Clinical Science Course: Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology (Basic and Clinical Science Course 2008-2009)
The impulses that make up the optical signal originate in the ganglion cells within the inner retina. Between the outer and inner retinal layers, the retinal signal starting in the receptors is processed primarily through the bipolar cells that connect the receptors to the ganglion cells. Most ganglion cells can be subdivided into small P-cells (parvocellular, accounting for 80%) and larger M-cells (magnocellular, approximately 5%-10%). Smaller sets of ganglion cells are less well characterized.
In addition to the extraocular muscles (discussed in the following section), these tissues include the optic nerve, Tenon's capsule, blood vessels, and the conjunctiva anteriorly. ) Without neural activity, the visual axes are usually mildly to moderately divergent. The major tonic input to ocular motility is supplied by 3 pairs of cranial nerves-the oculomotor (CN III), trochlear (CN IV), and abducens (CN VI)-that innervate the 6 extraocular muscles (EOMs) controlling ocular movement. In addition, CN III also innervates the levator palpebrae and the pupillary sphincter muscles.
Ed. Optic Nerve Disorders. Ophthalmology Monograph 10. ) collateral supply to the anterior segment. These collaterals may be interrupted if the conjunctiva and Tenon's capsule are removed from the limbus during ocular surgery. Distal to the origin of the ophthalmic artery, the intradural supraclinoid internal carotid artery gives off the anterior choroidal artery and anastomoses with the proximal posterior cerebral artery through the posterior communicating arteries. The anterior choroidal artery supplies blood to the optic tract and distally to the lateral geniculate (Fig 1-7).