By Carl D. Regillo MD
Stories the elemental anatomy of the retina and diagnostic techniques to retinal disorder. contains huge examinations of issues of the retina and vitreous, together with affliction, irritation, hereditary dystrophies, abnormalities and trauma. Discusses laser treatment and vitreoretinal surgical procedure. final significant revision 2008-2009.
Read or Download 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course) PDF
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Additional info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 12: Retina and Vitreous (Basic & Clinical Science Course)
Marmor MF. Variability of the human c-wave. Doc Ophthalmol Proc Ser. 1983;37: 151-157, part 8 reproduced Wi th permission of Kluwer Academic Publishers from GuPta LY, M armor MF Sequential recording of photic and nonphotic electro-ocu/ogram responses in patients with extensive extramacu/ar drusen. ) ably involves chloride conductance pathways. It does not always m irro r the EOG in disease, and its cl inical value is uncertain. It may show changes in cystic fibrosis, a disorder involving chlo ride conductance.
As more flu orescein enters the space, the entire area fluoresces. A tra nsmission defect, or window defect, refers to a view of the normal choroidal fluo rescence through a defect in the pigment or loss of pigment in the RPE, such as shown in Figures 2-1A and 2·1 B. In a transmission defect, the hyperfluorescence occurs early, corresponding to filling of the choroidal circulation, and reaches its greatest intensity with the peak of choroidal filling. The fluorescence does not increase in size or shape and usua lly fades in the late phases of the angiogram, as the choroidal fluorescence becomes d il uted by blood that does not contain fluoresce in.
In general, longer-acting dilating agents are not required. The simplest examination technique is using th e direct ophthalmoscope, which provides an upright, monocular, high-magnification (l5x) image of the retina. However, the instrument's lack of stereopsis, small field of view, and poor view of the retinal periphery lin1it its use. These shortcomings are overcome by using the binocular indirect ophthalmoscope (BIO) in combination with a handheld magnifying lens that dramatically increases the field of view with lowe r magnification (2-3x).