2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 5: by Lanning B. Kline, MD

By Lanning B. Kline, MD

Offers a symptom-driven method of the prognosis and therapy of significant neuro-ophthalmic stipulations. With the focal point at the sufferer, this e-book emphasizes exam and applicable adjunctive reports, together with a dialogue of diagnostic imaging modalities, and leads the reader during the occasionally sophisticated manifestations of neuro-ophthalmic disorder to anatomical localization of lesions and definitive analysis. an summary of the anatomy of visible pathways is followed through many illustrations. final significant revision 2009 2010.

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Extra info for 2011-2012 Basic and Clinical Science Course, Section 5: Neuro-Ophthalmology (Basic & Clinical Science Course)

Sample text

The combination of th e anterior and posterior co mrnu nicating arteries makes up th e circle of Willis, which permits coUateral now between the carotid and ve rtebrobasilar systems when th ere is vasc ular compromise. Small perforatin g branches arising fro m th e proximal anterior cerebral ar tery (as weLl as th e anter ior communicating artery) suppl y the in trac rani al optic nerves and the chiasm, More distall y, the an teri o r cerebral ar tery di vides into frontal, fro ntopolar, paracallosal, and pericallosal branches, Although th e afferent visual pathways are spared wi th distal anterio r cerebral artery occlusion, th e premo tor areas of the frontal lobes responsible for in it ia ling saccades are supplied by branc hes of the anterior cerebral artery.

Saccadic inputs reach eN VI N from ipsilateral excitatory burst neurons (EBN) and contralateral inhibitory burst neurons (IBN). The EBN and IBN are housed in the pontine paramedian reticular formation (PPRF). Specifically, the PPRF is composed of 3 nuclei, from the caudal pons to rostral medulla: (1) the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (containing the EBNI, (2) the nucleus raphe interpositus (containing pause cells), and (3) the nucleus paragigantocellularis dorsalis or medullary reticular formation (MedRF) (containing the IBN!.

Neuro-Ophthalmology Review Manual. 6th ed. ) CHAPTER 1; Neuro-Ophthalmic Anatomy . 41 the posterior parielal co rt ex (ppe), which is equi valent to the latera l intraparietal area in rhesus monkeys. The ppe is important in visuall y guided reflexive saccades. The SC is d ivided into a superficial (dorsal) and deep (ventral) part. The sensory signal (input from the visual cortex and retina) is main ly processed by the superficial sc. The 1110tor signal originates within the deeper layers (the stratum griscurn profundum and stratum album profundum) th at receive position in formati on frorn the more superficial laye rs.

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