A Course Book in English Grammar by Dennis Freeborn (auth.)

By Dennis Freeborn (auth.)

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Astonished. short. very fierce. All these adjectives can also be used immediately before nouns, which they are then said to modify: I picked up (some hard, cold, frozen peas). I carried (the heavy basket). (The astonished host) looked on. The tailor wielded (a short stick). (A fierce ogre) appeared. 38 A COURSE BOOK IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR These adjectives are being used as modifiers within the bracketed noun phrases (see Chapter 4). Most adjectives can be used in both ways, either as modifiers of nouns in noun phrases, or as intensive complements in a clause.

It is, but the same term is also used for words which modify adjectives, other adverbs, and whole sentences. Instead of labelling four or more separate word-classes, the single class, adverb, is traditionally used. So we then talk of four or more sub-classes of adverb. Here are some examples of the different kinds of adverbs, in sentences from Cider with Rosie: (a) adverbs modifying verbs The old food-terraces still showed on the slopes, along which the cows walked sideways. The sides of the valley were rich in pasture and the crests heavily covered in beech-woods.

It is helpful, therefore, to find another word to stand for the concept of a single proposition, or simple sentence. The word commonly used is clause. Our hypothesis about the ranks of grammatical structure in English can now be amended to: A A A A sentence consists of one or more clauses. clause consists of one or more phrases. phrase consists of one or more words. word consists of one or more morphemes. Here is an authentic example of a five year old girl talking, written out clause by clause to show how she is linking a series of simple sentences in speech.

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