A Course in Language Teaching: Practice of Theory (Cambridge by Penny Ur

By Penny Ur

This crucial path offers a entire simple advent to instructing languages, to be used in pre-service or early event settings. it may be utilized by teams of lecturers operating with a coach, or as a self-study source. The Trainee's ebook presents the entire projects given normally ebook yet with no history details, bibliographies, notes or ideas. it's compatible for these learning on a trainer-led direction, the place suggestions is quickly to be had.

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Exercise 4. By using bracketing exercises, try to get as many divisions as you can between [i] and [ « ] , that is [i, a3, e]} [i, e, e1"]* [i, e % i " ] , and so on. Exercise 5. ] of English bet and bit within the types which you made""b"etween [i] and [53]? Exercise 6. If you have difficulty making lowered varieties of [e] or [s], pronounce [e] and [a] in your normal Notice in Figure 13 that [»] has a lower tongue position than [ e ] . There can be a voooid which is lower than [S3] but still front in the mouth.

The other line, the bottom one, symbolizes an articulator which is released or removed from its point of articulation in such a way as to leave the passage unimpeded at that point. In Figure 6 notice that for [aiai] the middle part of the tongue is approximately at the bottom of the mouth during the production of [a], so that the passageway through the mouth is open wide. This fact is Bymbolized by the broken line whioh is low in the diagram during that sound. For Complete Closure of Passageway: Ca] [1] [a] [i] Movement of the Articulator: Complete Openness of Passageway: Fig.

In the t h i r d subdivision the a r t i c u l a t o r s a r e f a r enough from t h e i r p o i n t s of a r t i o u l a t i o n so t h a t no looal f r i o t i o n i s oaused by them, but a t the same time t h e q u a l i t y of sound i s influenced in items l i k e L i ] , [ a ] , [ o ] , by the degree of olosure of the passageway. The lowest sub- leaves the n a s a l passage open for [n] but closed for [ z z g ] . Notice a l s o t h a t the •'•Oooasionally i t i s convenient (as in Fig. 7 for [ — ] during [b] and [p]} t e drop the symbolization of an a r t i c u l a t o r to the lower p a r t of t h e diagram i f t h a t a r t i c u l a t o r i s r e l a t i v e l y open, f r i c t i o n l e s s , not under a t t e n t i o n , or seems nonpertinent t o the p r o duction of the major aooustio c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a sound.

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