A simulation of fatigue crack propagation in a welded

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Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the various I/Os are also shown in the figure. A key feature of the I/Os under consideration is that they are manufactured using wafer-scale batch fabrication, which is the key to the success of silicon technology. Thus, these technologies provide microscale solutions fully compatible with CMOS process technology and batch fabrication. Although the electrical I/Os are implemented using conventional solder bumps in the figure, mechanically compliant leads, such as those described in [47], can be used instead to address the thermomechanical reliability requirements of chips with low-k interlayer dielectric [48].

Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, vol. 9, 2003, pp. 614–623. [31] Bakir, M. , “Mechanically Flexible Chip-to-Substrate Optical Interconnections Using Optical Pillars,” IEEE Trans. on Advanced Packaging, vol. 31, 2008, pp. 143–153. com. , “Thermal Interface Materials: Historical Perspective, Status, and Future Directions,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 94, 2006, pp. 1571–1586. [34] Joyner, J. , P. Zarkesh-Ha, and J. D. Meindl, “Global Interconnect Design in a Three-Dimensional System-on-a-Chip,” IEEE Trans.

Although this may offer the advantages of being low cost, simplest to adopt, fastest to market, and providing modest form-factor reduction, the overhead in interconnect length and low-density interconnects between the two dice do not enable one to fully exploit the advantages of 3D integration. 6(b) illustrates the stacking of dice, based on the use of wire bonds. Naturally, this 3D technology is suitable for low-power and low-frequency chips due to the adverse effect of wire-bond length, low density, and peripheral pad location for signaling and power delivery.

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