By Ulf Dieckmann, Johan A. J. Metz, Maurice W. Sabelis, Karl Sigmund
This monograph takes inventory of our present wisdom at the evolutionary ecology of infectious ailments, and units out the targets for the administration of virulent pathogens. during the textual content, the basic options and methods underlying the types are conscientiously defined in a distinct sequence of built-in bins.
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Extra resources for Adaptive Dynamics of Infectious Diseases: In Pursuit of Virulence Management
As the abundance of this genotype increases, however, it becomes more vulnerable to attack by parasitic agents that could specialize on its homogeneous, now common, genotype. A large number of studies (most theoretical, some empirical) have examined how sexual reproduction could confer an advantage through the production of offspring with higher levels of genetic diversity. This diversity effectively blunts the ability of pathogens to rapidly exploit any common genetic variety of host. Two field studies on snails suggest that parasites can indeed influence the level of sexual versus parthenogenetic reproduction (Anderson and Crombie 1985; 3 · Wildlife Perspectives on the Evolution of Virulence 33 Lively 1992): parthenogenetic reproduction is employed at low parasitic loads, while sexual reproduction is favored when there is a high risk of parasitism.
Percentages correspond to the percentage of all species of pathogens in the transmission category that fall within the mortality category. Details of calculations are given in Ewald (1983). 2 Mortality of diarrheal bacteria of humans as a function of their tendencies to be waterborne. Details are given in Ewald (1991a). These low costs and high benefits of virulence lead to the hypothesis that waterborne transmission should be associated with particularly high virulence. This hypothesis has been tested by determining whether, for diarrheal pathogens of humans, the degree of waterborne transmission relative to direct transmission positively correlates with the lethality of untreated infections.
Here, the basic reproduction ratio, R0 , can be interpreted as the expected number of adult parasites produced (in the absence of densitydependent constraints acting on the parasite) by a typical adult during its entire period of reproductive maturity (Scott and Smith 1994). In microparasitic diseases, attention is usually focused on the dynamics of either a single pathogen (simple infection) or several related strains of the same pathogen (multiple infection). The majority of cross-sectional surveys of macroparasites in wildlife, however, show that, in general, more than one parasite species is present in any given host (Bush and Holmes 1986; Goater et al.