Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for by Imants Baruss, Stephen Vletas

By Imants Baruss, Stephen Vletas

Adjustments of cognizance is a fresh and richly analytic research into the character of cognitive truth. Imants Baruss explores quite a few manifestations of realization with rational and empirical rigor starting with extra traditional states resembling pondering, drowsing, dreaming and carrying on with on into hypnosis, trance, psychedelic studies, transcendence, and reports with regards to dying. This complete review of altered states examines recognition from the physiological, cognitive, and experiential issues of view. Readers will achieve from this attractive textual content an enriched knowing of awareness, truth, and the medical recreation.

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Extra resources for Alterations of Consciousness: An Empirical Analysis for Social Scientists

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The investigators found a significant 60% drop for the number of neutrophils but not for other white blood cells and, contrary to expectation, they found a significant decrease in the adherence of the neutrophils. The investigators also found correlations between the immune system changes and the participants’ self-reported effectiveness of their imagery along various dimensions. Although the decrease in neutrophil count had been expected in the imagery study, what was troubling to the investigators was that the adherence of the neutrophils had decreased and the size of the decrease had been greater precisely for those participants who had rated their imagery as having been more effective.

102). One day in 1954, he put on the mask and the arm and leg supports and immersed himself in a tank filled with tap water that was situated in a dark, WAKEFULNESS 43 soundproof room. He discovered that “this environment furnished the most profound relaxation and rest that he had ever experienced in [his] life” (Lilly, 1978, p. 103) and claimed “that two hours in the tank gave him the rest equivalent to eight hours of sleep on a bed” (Lilly, 1978, p. 103). He found, furthermore, “that there were many, many states of consciousness, of being, between the usual wide-awake consciousness of participating in an external reality and the unconscious state of deep sleep” (Lilly, 1978, p.

In practice, for example, Wundt would present a participant in a study with a simple colored shape using a tachistoscope, a device for presenting visual stimuli for brief time periods, and ask questions about the shape’s size, intensity, and duration. The method of introspection used by Wundt was a version of what Franz Brentano had called inner perception, the discrete noticing of what was happening to mental events as they occurred without interfering with them. Mental events, so it was believed, “by their very nature forced themselves into our notice” (Lyons, 1986, p.

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