By Mark Turner (auth.), David H. Helman (eds.)
In the previous few years, there was a massive quantity of job within the research of analogy and metaphor. this is often partially due to an curiosity of synthetic intelligence researchers in simulating studying techniques utilizing analogy. It additionally arises from serious examinations of ordinary theories within the philosophy of language, with their in-built literal/meta phoric contrast. This quantity involves contemporary formerly unpub lished paintings during this sector, with a specific emphasis upon the position of analogies in reasoning and, extra more often than not, their function in notion and language. The papers are contributed via philosophers, computing device scientists, cognitive scientists and literary critics. Researchers in those fields whose concentration is the examine of analogy and metaphor will locate a lot of curiosity during this quantity. those essays may also function an creation to a few of the key methods taken within the research of analogy. As famous, this quantity brings jointly the paintings of researchers in different diverse disciplines. some of the ways interested by recognize to the knowledge of analogy are typically particularly varied, notwithstanding, the articles recommend a standard end. Analogy and metaphor pervade proposal and language; their shut research hence constitutes a worthy contribution to our figuring out of individuals. DAVID H. HELMAN Case Western Reserve collage vii half I CONCEPTUAL AND specific THEORIES OF ANALOGICAL realizing MARK TURNER different types AND ANALOGIES i need to pursue the next claims: the best way we categorize is helping clarify the best way we realize an announcement as an analogy.
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Extra resources for Analogical Reasoning: Perspectives of Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive Science, and Philosophy
Technically speaking, a single item by itself can never be a metaphor. Usually the intended meaning in such cases is that the item serves as Nom 2 in a metaphor. Thus if one were to say that in (6) "ox" was a metaphor, the intended meaning would be that "ox" was being used metaphorically in (6). A sentence like (6) also poses a problem for general theoreticians of language. Since the surface structure is identical for both the literal and the metaphorical meaning of (6), there has to be a way of explaining how the two different meanings get mapped into the same surface structure.
A cut in almost any part of a living body reveals the blood flowing through it; analysis of almost any part of a body of natural language reveals metaphor vivifying it. In trying to understand the structure and function of blood we do not limit our scrutiny to just a droplet under a microscope; we try to understand the way blood courses through the body as a whole. Most analyses of metaphor are limited to microscopic examination of isolated metaphors; they do not offer a theoretical basis for studying the role of metaphor in a text as a whole.
The string in (13) is a deeper structure that underlies the usual Chomskyan deep structure, and it contains the abstract marker [metaphor], which is an instruction to conflate the two clauses by replacing the abstract SOMETHING in the first clause with the subject of the second clause and by deleting the predicate of the second clause (which, of course, represents the general assumption). Thus the surface structure turns out to be identical to the surface structure of the literal sentence, but the semantic component has access to the information in the deeper structure and it compels us to interpret metaphorically the surface structure that is ultimately derived from (13).